Sunday, February 23, 2020
Key issues involved in the primary school teaching and learning of spelling - Essay Example The inevitable global finance, culture, shifts of new information in industry and extreme transport speed has transformed many things. For a century, education has stayed put and met the needs of its society as part of the change. Spelling is a linguistic bit of practice issuing control, authority and conformity with sharp focus. It represents resources used to make meaning. System in spelling seems to be a subject of constraints convention, and yet one creating creativity in children (Torbe 34). Natural learning method is an instructional approach to spelling that arrests spelling development contrary to ineffective methods. Constrains of literacy usually result when there is spelling development is compromised. Acquiring spelling knowledge, for instance reinforces childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s morphemic, phonemic and orthographic knowledge (Phonics 56). Proficient spelling applies invented mnemonics helping to memorize irregular and difficult words such as ARITHMETIC Ã¢â¬â A Red Indian Thought He Might Eat Treacle In Church); patterns sharing in terms of language (for example, through songs, rhymes, poems and puns); checking of work and drafting and redrafting; a look remembrance write check system for learning individual words; encouraging handwriting, which is fluent, avoiding letter by letter spelling of words, for example, a child spells Keep as k-e-ep, instead of k-ee-p to stress phonic units (Gentry 93). Morphemes as a unit within words help children progress from meaning to structure. Etymology as a strategy advocates the teaching of origins, roots and word structure. Internalizing visual characteristic of words extensively makes one become a good speller in written language. For instance, experience teaches an individual that house is written through this sequence of letters. The high degree and rapid speed that a competent speller
Thursday, February 6, 2020
What are the key features of an effective learning environment(in Primary school) and how can this support the Primary National Strategy and Every Child Matters - Essay Example Good teachers are able to assess learning effectively. They also are able to control their classes and treat all students equally. The Primary National Strategy supports improving most of these factors, but more needs to be done. A report of the success of the Primary National Strategy concluded that The National Literacy and Numeracy frameworks are still used by teachers as their core support in planning for progression in both English and mathematics. Schools are anxious to maintain the improved standards they have seen since the introduction of the NLNS. Many do not wish to risk losing these gains through too great a change. Although the strategies have improved the teaching of English and mathematics, teaching in both subjects remains no better than satisfactory in one lesson in three. Although provision of additional guidance and better targeted support has improved the quality of teaching in some schools, it has yet to raise the overall frequency and consistency of teaching that is good or better in all schools. One significant improvement in teaching is teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ use of information and communication technology (ICT), a consequence of increased guidance and support provided through the PNS. However, despite support for teachers in developing assessment fo r learning, improvements are slow in coming and weaknesses remain (Primary National Strategy: An evaluation of its impact on primary schools 2004/05, 2005). A teachers knowledge of their subject matter is very important factor in that teachers effectiveness. A teacher with a high level of knowledge can usually explain a subject better to students. They will rely less on simple memorization and they will be able to answer any unexpected questions by students. They will receive more respect from students. They act as a good role model for students as they can show that learning their subjects is
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Indian Removal Act Essay Known as having adopted an Indian child as his son, Andrew Jackson was quite fond of the Indian race; however, with pressure to expand westward, he needed to transfer the Indians farther west and soon became their worst enemy. Andrew JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Indian Policy was to move the Indians westward as peacefully as possible, for the tribes that stayed in the East Coast were annihilated. Also, moving them West will help them live longer, and there is a fair exchange for the tribes moving. Another important component is the gain of Western lands and the addition of American power; this will add on to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s size and increase AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s authority. Jackson validates his actions by saying he will pay for the land the Indians inhabit, pay for their long journey West, also known as the Trail of Tears, and support them a little while their settling in. President Jackson also said if they move west, they will enjoy sovereignty forever. Jackson made the point that with the Indians gone there will be less conflict between them and state governments, it will allow for prosperous populations and cities to flourish, and the free land will add another line of defense for America. President JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude toward the Indians in his speech reveals that he wants the Indians gone so America can gain land and grow stronger. He uses words like Ã¢â¬Å"Red MenÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"SavagesÃ¢â¬ to describe them, so they seem like outcasts. He makes it sounds like the Indians are a nuisance and if they move, they will prosper as a people. Jackson says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦perhaps cause them graduallyÃ¢â¬ ¦to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community.Ã¢â¬ Overall, Jackson wants the Indians gone for his own benefit. He refers to them as uncivilized, uninteresting, and having savage habits, and was proving that he is just looking for a gain for his country, not the native people who have lived there forever.
Monday, January 20, 2020
The Cricket Ball in the Sport of Cricket Cricket is one of the most exciting sports in world. It is played is most countries in world. Cricket is not that popular in Unites States but it is the most popular sports in countries like India, England and Australia. Making cricket popular in America requires describing its equipments and the game itself. One of the most important equipment of this wonderful game is Cricket ball. The cricket ball is a little small than a baseball ball. It is round shaped, smaller than a wrist of an average size man. A cricket ball is made from a core of cork, which is layered with tightly wound string. It is covered by a leather case with a slightly raised sewn seam. The covering is constructed of four pieces of leather shaped similar to the peel of a quartered orange. A cricket ball only has one seam. The equator of the ball is stitched with string to form the seam, with a total of six rows of stitches. The remaining two joins between the leather pieces are left unstitched. The ball is about nine inches in circumference and only weighs between 5.5 Ã¢â¬â 5.75 ounces. The surface of the ground where cricket ball is pitched matters a lot for the performance. This ball bounces a lot on a dry/hard pitch because of its hardness. However it's the other way around if the pitch is wet/damp, this ball loses it bounce. Weather is also very important factor on how the ball behaves. In sunny weather the ball don't do much but if itÃ¢â¬â¢s windy the ball swings in air a lot. Therefore when the weather is bad this ball sometimes becomes impossible to play. The most dangerous thing this ball does is Ã¢â¬Å"SwingÃ¢â¬ . Swing which is achieved by keeping one side of the ball polished smooth and shiny and keeping the other side rough, and delivering the ball with the polished side forward, and the seam angled in the direction of desired swing. There are two types of swing balling in cricket. The out swinging ball moves away from the right-handed batsman, while the in swinger moves in towards him. Normal swing is achieved by maintaining laminar boundary layer air-flow on the shiny side whilst creating turbulent flow on the seam side.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing PART 1 THE INTERNATIONAL AUDITING STANDARDS BOARD AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUDITING STANDARDS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) is an independent standard setting body within the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). Established in 1978, originally known as International Auditing Practices Committee (IAPC), it changed its name to IAASB in early 2001 and was then reformed by IFAC in 2003.IAASB puts public interest first and aims to improve the quality and uniformity of practice throughout the world and to strengthen public confidence in the global auditing and assurance profession by facilitating the convergence of international and national standards. IAASB is committed to achieve its objectives through the following works: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Developing Standards Ã¢â¬â establish high quality auditing, review, other assurance, quality control and related ser vices standards, such as International Standards on Auditing (ISAs). Global Acceptance & Convergence Ã¢â¬â promote the acceptance and adoption of IAASB pronouncements throughout the world and support a strong and solid international accountancy profession by coordinating with IFAC member bodies, regional organisations and national standard setters. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Communication Ã¢â¬â encourage debate and present papers on a variety of audit and assurance issues and increase the public image and awareness of the activities of the IAASB. To date, the IAASB has earned increasing recognition for the quality of its standards and the credibility of its standard setting process.This has contributed to the increasing use of its standards worldwide. Over 100 countries are now using or are in the process of adopting ISAs into their national auditing standards. For investors in international capital markets, the quality of audit reports and audit opinions on financial reports are crucial when th ey make decisions about capital allocation. Audits, working within internationally accepted auditing standards, increase the credibility and reliability of the financial information provided in the financial reports.As Australian capital markets are increasingly linked with overseas markets, it is important to have a globally standardised financial reporting framework that is supported by globally accepted auditing standards. The Australian Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (AUASB) made the compliance with IAASB standards easier via a long-standing policy of convergence and harmonisation with ISAs. The AUASB uses ISAs as a base to develop Australian Standards on Auditing (ASA).For any revision and enhancement of ISAs initiated by the IAASB, the AUASB will make appropriate consequential amendments to ASA. The AUASB and IAASB generally issue an exposure draft of a proposed auditing and assurance standard concurrently for consideration by interested parties. In New Zealand, New Ze aland Auditing Standards (AS) and Audit Guidance Statements (AGS) are also based on ISAs and International Auditing Practice Statements (IAPS). The New Zealand auditing authority adopts the IFAC documents and amends them only as necessary to achieve its Ã¢â¬â 1 of 11 Ã¢â¬âGroup Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing objectives. Amendments to the IFAC documents may be made to reflect specific New Zealand legislative requirements or to reflect specific audit practising arrangements within New Zealand. As we can see, for years since IAPC or IAASB was established, it has played a very important role in enhancing and standardizing the quality of auditing and assurance services around the world. ============================= Ã¢â¬â 2 of 11 Ã¢â¬â Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing PART 2 CO-REGULATION OF AUDITING PRACTICE IN AUSTRALIAIn most developed countries, including Australia, the auditing regulatory framework is provided, at least to some extent, by government through legislation and government agencies. In the past, however, the auditing profession in Australia was largely self-regulated through the rules and requirements self-imposed by the principal players in the field, i. e. auditing firms and auditing professional bodies. As a result of the Corporate Law Economic Reform Program (CLERP) 9, the Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (AUASB) became a statutory (government) body.Since April 28th 2006, the Australian Auditing Standards (ASAs), which have been released by AUASB for purposes of section 336 of Corporation Act 2001, have Force of Law. The Financial Reporting Council (FRC), a statutory body under the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 (ASIC Act), is responsible for providing broad oversight of the process for setting accounting and auditing standards as well as monitoring the effectiveness of auditor independence requirements in Australia.Yet the control and enforcement mechanism of these sta ndards is also supported by the auditing profession represented by two primary professional accounting organisations: CPA Australia and the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia (ICAA). Although the membership in these two organizations is voluntarily, it is still a necessary condition to get registration as a Company Auditor or a Liquidator. Some methods of control of quality of the auditing services imposed by these professional organisations include peer reviews, continued professional development and periodical rotation of the auditors.There are also disciplinary procedures in place to encourage improved ethical behaviour and quality of service provided. This particular model of co-existence of government regulation and industry self-regulation in Australia is called Ã¢â¬Ëco-regulationÃ¢â¬â¢ of auditing practice. Co-regulation provides Ã¢â¬Ëinteractions that produce pressures for the refinement of regulatory structures in terms of openness, consultation, independ ence and speed of response to urgent accounting problemsÃ¢â¬â¢ [Malcolm C. Miller]. ============================= Ã¢â¬â 3 of 11 Ã¢â¬â Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing PART 3 QUESTION 6. 3 Ã¢â¬â ASA 315 UNDERSTANDING THE ENTITY AND ITS ENVIRONMENT AND ASSESSING THE RISKS OF MATERIAL MISSTATEMENT Ã¢â¬â HOMECHEF PTY LTD. A first and very important step of the audit process involves the auditor gaining an early understanding and knowledge of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s business. In fact, ASA 315 requires that this step is carried out during the audit planning stage. The auditor must obtain or update their understanding of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and circumstances, including its organisational structure, management policies, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢ position in its industry, the economy and its legal obligations.ASA 315 provides extensive guidance on matters related to obtaining an understanding of the entity and its environment, which may be classified into thr ee main categories: (1) Internal control / organisational structure (2) Operational and legal structure (3) Industry and economic conditions An understanding of these three elements helps the auditor assess the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s business risk and identify the events, transactions and practices that may have a significant effect on its financial report. This report presents a recent review of the operations and circumstances of one of our clients, HomeChef Pty Ltd. in accordance with the requirements of ASA 315. The main objective was to identify the events and developments at HomeChef which may have a significant bearing on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business risk and consequently affect our audit. This understanding will help us plan and perform the audit more efficiently and effectively and will ultimately improve the services we provide to our client. HomeChef Pty Ltd has been the market leader in the boutique food and beverage industry for the last two years.The company manufactures, su pplies and retails quality ingredients for use in the home kitchen and small restaurant market. During the review our audit team identified a number of major events/transactions that may have a significant impact on the business and affect our audit process. Below is a brief discussion on each of these events/transactions: 1) New products and services: Recently, HomeChef introduced Ã¢â¬Ëpre-packagedÃ¢â¬â¢ meals suitable to be served at a dinner party. Preparation of the Ã¢â¬Ëready to serve mealsÃ¢â¬â¢ would require extra steps to produce the final product.This would involve more processing facilities, more staff and more advertising. One potential related business risk might be the increased product liability. There may be extra compliance requirements from the Food Safety Regulators. There could also be risk that the demand has not been accurately estimated. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capital and current expenditure may increase significantly because of the launch of the new prod uct. This situation tends to increase our audit risk. The auditor, therefore, should carefully consider how this changing operating characteristic may affect his/her auditing process.For example, he/she may need to review some Food Safety Regulation requirements to assess that correct amounts of expenditure is attributed to this particular type of compliance; or refer to some industry literature to get a better understanding of the niche market for this type of product. Reviewing Ã¢â¬â 4 of 11 Ã¢â¬â Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing sales figures and sale forecasts may also help to assess to what degree the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business risk may be affected by this new development. 2) New lines of business: HomeChef has recently opened a number of small cafe where customers can sample the s companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product range.By doing so, the company is venturing into unfamiliar territory. In addition, the notes of HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s draft financial report reveal that t he company has entered into agreements for building and developing a new entertainment complex. These events indicate not only changes in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operational structure, but also those relating to its environment. New opportunities bring new risks. As this is HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s first venture into a new business area, lack of expertise and experience could be a real concern. The hospitality industry operates quite differently from the food manufacturing.There could be many more competitive forces and regulations in place. This move could change the organisational/operational structure of the company drastically. For example, new divisions may need to be established and the company hierarchy changed. Apart from the potential risks of increased product liability and inaccurate demand estimates, similar to the case of all new products, this could introduce new risks associated with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal control. Also, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s potential business risk would increase its inherent risk. In general, this event is likely to increase our audit risk.It is very important that the auditor familiarises him/herself with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s new operational structure, the industry conditions and regulatory environment related to this new line of business. Reviewing the hospitality industry publications and significant industry legislation may assist with basic understanding of how the company business risk is affected by this move. Aggressive marketing and acquisition strategy Ã¢â¬â Rapid growth: Over the last two years HomeChef has acquired a number of smaller competitors and become the market leader in its industry.This is an indication of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive approach to expansion and growth. In such situations, it is often noticed that a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s infrastructure is likely to lag behind in the process. In a hurry to expand, the organisational structure of the company may be changing too fast. There could be staff members with insufficient experience, the IT system may not cope well under the new conditions as new procedures and processes are added in. This significant and rapid expansion of operations could create strain and increase the risk of a breakdown in controls.The auditor needs to discuss with the senior management and gather evidence from the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s documents to assess this risk. He/she may need further understanding of the current cycle in the industry, to assess how this Ã¢â¬Ëacquisition spreeÃ¢â¬â¢ could affect HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s business risk, and consequently the audit risk. Reviewing government statistics, trend forecasts, trade journals and financial newspapers may help improve the auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the industry in general and the business in particular.Changes in key personnel: The departure of a key executive (HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s finance director), probably with a significant loss of corporate history and experience, may also have an impact on the busine ss. The new finance manager has been with the company for less than a month and may take some time to gain the knowledge and understanding of the business. He may have a different focus or 3) 4) Ã¢â¬â 5 of 11 Ã¢â¬â Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing understanding of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal control.The auditor should take this factor into account when assessing the risks of misstatements associated with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial report which, possibly, has been prepared under the instructions of the new finance director. 5) Newly-established internal audit group: HomeChef started using the service of an internal audit group for the first time this year. Generally, the existence and operation of an internal audit group indicate the commitment and serious consideration given to maintaining high standards of internal control by the management. This would normally reduce the control risk in a business and subsequently reduce the audit risk.In addition, th e external auditor could, to some extent, use the work of an internal auditor, after having gained knowledge of and satisfied with the scope of internal auditing and the audit teamÃ¢â¬â¢s technical competence and professional care. However, in this case, as HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s audit team is new, careful considerations are required if the auditor is to rely on the internal teamÃ¢â¬â¢s audit work. Installation of a significant new IT system related to financial reporting: HomeChef switched to a new computer system early this year. The system was installed by a professional computer company and the old and new systems were run parallel for 3 months.Some new functions/modules have been introduced in the new system, including the ability to process stocktake results, account payable invoices and payments at the store level. This event highlighted a major change in one of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal control components. It seems that the new system is rather reliable as a systematic te sting plan and an integrity checking process were carried out by the professional computer company and there have been no major problems with the system so far. The use of this new system could potentially decrease the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s control risk. The audit strategy could focus on test of control.A proper and systematic testing plan on the new system is recommended, especially on the new modules for stocktake and accounts payable process. Significant amount of non-routine/non-systematic transactions: HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s draft Income Statement includes an Ã¢â¬Ëextraordinary itemÃ¢â¬â¢ of $231 million without any notes or explanations attached to it. The existence of this Ã¢â¬ËextraordinaryÃ¢â¬â¢ loss would certainly have a significant impact on the business and would increase the audit risk considerably. This particular transaction requires a significant amount of attention by the auditor.Enquiries should be made to understand the nature and extent of all relevant details of this transaction. This would help the auditor assess if the transaction is legal, not dismissing the possibility of fraud, or errors, such as transactions recorded without substance, intentional misapplication of accounting policies, mathematical mistakes, oversight or misinterpretation of facts. The auditor should also examine if the valuation and allocation of the amounts have been done correctly. Company records and legal documents will need to be reviewed. An extensive substantive audit approach would be suitable for this particular area of the audit.Debt structure Ã¢â¬â Covenant agreement: Note (e) to the draft Financial Report reveals that a covenant agreement exists between HomeChef and its bank. The bank loans are secured against the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s remaining property, plant and equipment. This agreement specifies that the company should maintain a 6) 7) 8) Ã¢â¬â 6 of 11 Ã¢â¬â Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing positive net tangible asset ratio and a positive current ratio. Given the large amount at stake, there is a great incentive for the company to falsify, alter and manipulate figures to achieve these positive ratios at any cost.This situation would increase HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s business risk significantly and consequently increase our audit risk. The audit plan could focus on substantive testing of the accounts related to the current ratio and net asset ratio. The auditor must exercise reasonable care and skill and maintain an attitude of professional scepticism throughout the audit. Based on HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s financial ratios being adverse and the subsequent difficulty in complying with the terms of loan agreements, the auditor may need to raise a going concern issue.It would be necessary for the auditor to discuss this problem with HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s management so that appropriate measures could be taken by the company to overcome this situation. As a result of reviewing HomeChefÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and environment, includi ng its financial and marketing position, using the precepts of ASA 315, our audit team has been able to update our knowledge of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s situation and assess our audit risk accordingly. This understanding and assessment will direct the development of our strategy and plan for the audit of HomeChef. ============================ Ã¢â¬â 7 of 11 Ã¢â¬â Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing PART 4 QUESTION 6. 22 Ã¢â¬â IMPACT OF BUSINESS RISK ASSESSMENT ON AUDIT STRATEGY This report presents a short case study of Weave Limited. The main purpose of the case study is to look at how Business Risk impacts on Audit Risk, and consequently, on Audit Strategy and Plan. Weave Limited is a closely held private company, manufacturing high-quality woollen cloth. It has been in operation for almost 60 years and the CEO of the company is also its major shareholder.Currently, the company is under a great financial stress due to increased competition and falling sales volu me. Three years ago the company was sued for dumping chemical pollutants into the local river. As a result, a settlement was signed with the Environmental Protection Agency providing that Weave construct a water treatment facility within five years. Our Audit Firm has been auditing Weave for the last ten years, and the current year interim audit revealed that there has been virtually no activity in the Water Treatment Facility Construction account in the current financial year.To prepare for this year audit we need to take the following steps: (1) review the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business risk i. e. the risk that WeaveÃ¢â¬â¢s business objectives will not be attained due to the above-mentioned pressures and, ultimately, the risk associated with its profitability and survival. (2) assess the implications of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business risk on our audit risk (3) develop our audit strategy and audit program in response to the assessed risks. In order to assess WeaveÃ¢â¬â¢s business ris k, we felt that a PEST analysis would be the most appropriate approach.It involves identifying the political/legal, economic, social and technological influences on an entity. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Environmental Protection Laws may have a heavy toll on the business. Compliance with these Laws (such as building a water treatment facility) may be very expensive, but non-compliance may actually have a suicidal effect on the company. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Economic risk should also be taken into account. Increased competition and limited market for WeaveÃ¢â¬â¢s high quality and possibly expensive products could pose a serious threat to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability and ultimately its very survival. Social risk component is also present in this case. The surrounding area is poor and unemployment rate is high. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management may feel a social pressure to provide employment at any cost. The obligation to build a water treatment facility could be very expensive and resource-consuming. It is not an easy task to estimate or to make provisions for the resources required to meet this obligation. It is even harder to estimate the costs of not meeting this obligation. This adds unusual pressure on the management.Potential incentives could arise for management to understate the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profit/cash flow to use as an excuse in an attempt to avoid fulfilling this particular liability. This situation is likely to increase WeaveÃ¢â¬â¢s inherent risks. Ã¢â¬â 8 of 11 Ã¢â¬â Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing In assessing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s control risks, certain observations and issues have come to our attention which suggest an unsatisfactory internal control system: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO is also its major shareholder who seems to be a strong character that has the overriding authority and decision making power. The CEO does not seem to take the compliance with the conditions imposed by the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Environmental Protection Agency seriously. He decided to stop work on the water treatment facility as he thought that the State would not fine or close the company down for non-compliance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The company does not seem to have any risk assessment policies or procedures for dealing with business risk. Based on the above findings, the audit team agreed that WeaveÃ¢â¬â¢s business/inherent risks and control risks could be assessed as high.This conclusion has had an impact on our audit strategy and audit plan. As we believe that the control risks are high, an audit strategy of a predominantly substantive approach has been adopted. We do not plan to obtain a thorough understanding of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal control or to carry out tests of control. Instead, we plan extensive substantive audit procedures based on a low to medium acceptable level of detection risk (depending whether the assertions under examination are at risk).In response to the high level of inherent risks, we decided to assign more experie nced audit personnel and to conduct the audit with a heightened degree of professional scepticism. As mentioned earlier, an accurate assessment of the extent of liability related to the breach of the environmental laws is not easy to achieve. As the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management does not seem to recognise the seriousness of this risk or to respond to it properly, we decided to engage environmental and technical experts to assist by providing us with legal/environmental opinion and estimates.The engagement of an environmental consultant will be scheduled to happen before the year end audit. WeaveÃ¢â¬â¢s increased inherent risk and control risk increase our audit risk. Some assertions in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial reports have been identified as the key audit assertions as they tend to be more at risk. These assertions will be examined closely (please refer to the matrix below) and more efforts will be focused on obtaining sufficient and appropriate evidence to test these assertio ns.Financial Acct Liability Acct (provision for water treatment facility) Contingent Liabilties Valuation of the provision Sales Acct (Income Statement Assertions) Completeness all sales recorded Accuracy of recorded sales amounts Correct accounting period cut-off Inherent Risk Control Risk Debtor's confirmation Assertions at risk (Balance Sheet Assertions) Completeness of all liabilities Inherent Risk Engagement of environmental expert/consultant Quotation / project estimations are recorded properly with appropriate amounts Audit Risk Procedures/Evidence 9 of 11 Ã¢â¬â Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing To test if the liability account for the water treatment facility contains any material misstatement we will focus on whether the account has included all liabilities as per the environmental specialistÃ¢â¬â¢s advice and the amounts are properly estimated and recorded (completeness and valuation). We could do this by seeking confirmation from the environmental sp ecialist and checking estimates/quotations for the project.To support the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s claim of Ã¢â¬Ëlow sales volumeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëlow level of cash flowÃ¢â¬â¢, we will test if all sales transactions pertaining to the company have been included in the income statement (completeness) and all sales occurred during the current accounting period have been properly recorded with the correct amounts (accuracy and cut-off). Collecting debtorsÃ¢â¬â¢ confirmations could be the approach to carry out this test. As our team has audited the company for the last ten years, it is assumed that there must be a certain degree of familiarity and complacency.However, due to the new developments in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢ situation, more specifically, higher level of business risk, this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s audit strategy and plan have been revised accordingly. Apart from additional audit procedures and probably a larger sample size, our team will need to maintain a higher level of professional sce pticism to make sure that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s accounts contain no material misstatements. It should be noted that had this audit been undertaken in the seventh year after the signing of the settlement with the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Environmental Protection Agency, the situation would be different.As the condition of the settlement to build a water treatment facility would have been breached by now, there is an imminent threat of the company being closed down by the government. A Ã¢â¬Ëgoing concernÃ¢â¬â¢ assessment at the planning stage (as required by ASA 570) would provide the following going concern problem indications: (1) increased competition and falling sales, (2) noncompliance with statutory requirements, and (3) legal proceedings against the entity. In cases where going concern is related to cash flow or solvency problems, some mitigating factors could be considered (such as sale of assets or additional contributions by owners).However, in this case, it could be judged th at a going concern basis is not appropriate as the business is now subject to closure by government regulation enforcement. We, as the auditors, would need to discuss ways to deal with the problem with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management. The possible outcomes could range from renegotiating the settlement agreement to making the decision to liquidate. In the latter case, the auditors would have to assess the impact that a forced sale of assets would have on the book values and the classifications of assets.The auditors would also need to assess the amount and classification of liabilities, including any provision for staff termination payments and other closing-down expenses. In any way, if going concern is an issue it should be adequately reflected (disclosed) in the Financial Reports. The AuditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Report should also include an Ã¢â¬Ëemphasis of matterÃ¢â¬â¢ [ASA701. 09 & ASA570], clearly stating that there is a significant uncertainty regarding a going concern problem. ==== ========================= Ã¢â¬â 10 of 11 Ã¢â¬â Group Assignment Ã¢â¬â HBC614B Company Auditing REFERENCES: 1. 2.Australian Auditing and Assurance Handbook, 2007 Edition, CPA Australia Australian GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Financial Reporting Council 2005, Australian GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Financial Reporting Council, viewed 20 May 2008, http://www. frc. gov. au/about 3. Brief History 2008, International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, IAS Plus, Deloitte, viewed 18 May 2008, http://www. iasplus. com/ifac/iaasb. htm 4. Chris Pearce, Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury, 22 November 2004, Ã¢â¬Å"The future of governance regulation in Australia, Address to the 21st National Conference of Chartered Secretaries AustraliaÃ¢â¬ , viewed 19 May 2008, http://www. reasurer. gov. au/DisplayDocs. aspx? doc=speeches/2004/001. htm=005=cjp=20 04=1 5. Gay & Simnett, 2007, Ã¢â¬ËChapter 6 Planning, Knowledge of the Business and Evaluating Business RiskÃ¢â¬â¢, Auditing and Assurance Serv ices in Australia, revised edn 3, McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. 6. International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board 2008, IFAC, viewed 18 May 2008, http://www. ifac. org/IAASB/ 7. James M. Sylph, January 14, 2005, Ã¢â¬Å"Global Convergence Ã¢â¬â Near or Far? Ã¢â¬ , American Accounting Association Auditing Section 2005 Mid Year Conference
Saturday, January 4, 2020
All throughout history philosophers, politicians, and religious leaders have pondered the meaning of life. 20th century philosopher Albert Camus found that it Western society was far too focused on substance rather than understanding that it is the search for actualization or the process as opposed to the destination that provides the true meaning of life (Camus, 1942). Still others, Friedrich Nietzsche, for instance, found that it was suffering in its literal sense, or the process of undergoing, that defined the meaning of life. This was the ultimate search for freedom and actualization intellectual and emotional satisfaction (Nietzsche, 2004). Taking this view further, it seems as if the 21st century as brought the challenge of overcoming ones base instincts and striving for more, to be any kind of a person, ones life must have a unity to it, the continuity and coherence which comes from constructing ones life as a work of art (Young, 2003, 117). Karl Marx called religion the opiat e of the masses, in that it both numbs and comforts people, but really leaves them in a perpetual state of confusion and falsehoods. Yet it is primarily religion that humans turn to when facing questions about the meaning of life. It is interesting, too, that this idea of the meaning of life has ingrained in so very many parts of culture popular, spiritual, and philosophical. There was a full-screen movie called Monty Pythons Meaning of Life that examined the question from a humorousShow MoreRelatedThe Philosophy Of Religion : Thomas Aquinas And Fredrich Nietzsche1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslives. However, the Philosophy of Religion caters to everyone, not just believers. Today we will look at Thomas Aquinas and Fredrich Nietzsche and their takes on religion. To fully understand their viewpoints its important to first understand what the philosophy of religion entails. The philosophy of religion is the philosophical study of the meaning and nature of religion. Which also includes the analyses of religious concepts, beliefs, terms, arguments, and practices of religious believers. HoweverRead MoreEssay on Ludwig Wittgenstein1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescommonly recognised stages of thought in 20th century analytic philosophy, both of which are taken to be central and fundamental in their respective periods. His early philosophy in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, first published in 1921, provided new insights into relationships between the world, thought, language and the nature of philosophy by showing the application of modern logic to metaphysics via language. His later philosophy, mostly found in Philosophical Investigations, published posthumouslyRead MoreRelationship Between Science And Religion1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe relation ship between the philosophies of science and religion has long been a contentious topic in both popular and scholastic discourse. While some individuals engaging in this debate suggest that the relationship between the two disciplines is one of direct opposition, others propose that the two disciplines are in fact compatible or too dissimilar to be in conflict. While this debate raged, certain academics attempted to find a way to solve the apparent conflict between science and religionRead MoreComparing Ancient Vs. Ancient Philosophers771 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn comparing ancient skeptics Titus Lucretius Carcus and Wang ChÃ¢â¬â¢ung they come from two different backgrounds one of higher education another that had no former learning or training yet have great theories of mythology and philosophy of what was to be or could be in a person life. Special fears that shaped their lives and caused them to be superstitious and even skeptical in the way they lived their own lives. Skepticis m is considered Ã¢â¬Å"is an attitude of doubting the truth of something, such as a claimRead MoreEssay on Existential Philosphy1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesshift from the social philosophy around that time which viewed life with purpose and meaning which was found usually though God, or some religious doctrine, however Nihilism is the philosophy that dictates the meaninglessness in life; it leaves an empty and void existence. Nihilism is usually associated with German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche is often although not a Nihilist himself Nietzsche wrote a considerable amount concerning Nihilism and its implications as a philosophy. Nietzsche saw NihilismRead MoreQuestions On Religion Of Science925 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesapplication to life.Ã¢â¬ 2. Philosophy: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the opinions one holds about the world, life, and reality.Ã¢â¬ 3. Religion: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ any manÃ¢â¬â¢s belief about his relationship to the invisible universe.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We might speak of a pure religious science as we would speak of a pure natural science, which means the study of natural causes. We might speak of pure religious science as that branch of science which studies the natural principles; the nature of Mind and Consciousness. Then we could think of applied religious science asRead MoreThe Comparable And Contrastable Philosophies Of Kierkegaard And Kant Essay1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Comparable and Contrastable Philosophies of Kierkegaard and Kant In this paper, I will investigate the comparable and contrasting views of Soren Kierkegaard and Immanuel Kant. Their extraordinary journeys towards the meaning of morality and ethics is riveting, spiritual, universal, and in many ways, incredibly different. My conclusion is that though there are aspects which bind their theories together, ultimately both men possess different understandings of what morality is and how an individualRead MoreThe Philosophical Method Of Philosophy1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages What is Philosophy Philosophy according to its literal translation is the devotion to wisdom. But exactly what kind of wisdom does Philosophy entail? This question is answered by the subject matter of Philosophy (metaphysics, epistemology, value theory). The societal impact of acculturation has presented a problem to philosophical thinking. However, the philosophical method has also allowed for an abstract thinking outside that of which we typically inherit through tradition. In a way everyoneRead MoreEssay on Discussion over the Existence of God1249 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesexperience. Without a doubt, the question of Gods existence is one of the most significant questions of human philosophy. It alters the whole meaning of human life, and it challenges if man is really the Supreme Being in the universe or if man has a greater being that he must love and obey, or possibly defy. So the question is; does God exist? Look at the proof produced by the voraciously religious spirit of man, the origins of the u niverse, and morality. There are many different theories and opinionsRead MoreHistorical Developments in Philosophy Essay1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUniversity of Phoenix Material Philosophy Matrix | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
Friday, December 27, 2019
Evaluating the Most Effective Parenting Styles with Children for Positive Outcomes in the Home and Classroom. A parent is not only the mom who holds you close for nine months and then many years, or the dad who plays baseball with you, but also someone who is there from the start, guiding you to the right path of knowledge and teaching you how to stay on the right path on your own. For years psychologists have defined ways to correctly support a child to adulthood. Some people conclude parenting their children after the child reaches the age of 18 and some have the duty as a lifelong job. As years pass so do generations and media changes very constantly and plays a factor in how children act and respond to certain stimuli. According toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If the child does not comply with such regulations then usually, the child would be punished or berated through lecture. The Authoritarian parenting style is very controversial as it is stereotyped to the Ã¢â¬Å"tiger momÃ¢â¬ . The parenting style has a lot of reputation around it both good and bad. However, health and fitness writer Charlotte Hilton Andersen as cited by the Ã¢â¬Å"Issues and ControversiesÃ¢â¬ had reported that, a 2007 study by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services showing that the highest female suicide rate in the country is for Asian-American women aged 15Ã¢â¬â24, who are often raised by tiger moms that practice the role of the Authoritarian Parenting Style. (Issues and Controversies). Studies suggest that not only is Authoritarian Parenting related to depression and anxiety but also Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). OCD is a heterogeneous psychological disorder characterized by recurrent and distressing thoughts, images or impulses that provoke anxiety or distress and redundant or repeated behavior performed to decreases the distress. For example someone at home, would constantly need to check the locks at their household in order to catch sleep only, it would not be just once or twice but many times. In a study conducted by Timpano, Keough, Mahaffey and Abramowit z, OC (Obsessive Compulsive) symptoms were found greater with people who were raised with Authoritarian Parenting. (Timpano, Keough, Mahaffey andShow MoreRelatedEvaluating the Most Effective Parenting Styles with Children: Positive Outcomes in the Home and Classroom. Regina Struga Holy Family University 1754 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesEvaluating the Most Effective Parenting Styles with Children: Positive Outcomes in the Home and Classroom. A parent is not only the loving mother who holds you close to her for nine months and then many years, or the father who plays baseball with you and intimidates his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s dates. It is someone who is there for you from the start, guiding you to the right path of knowledge and teaching you how to stay on the right path independently. A parent does not need to have any biological associationsRead MoreDown Syndrome And Its Effects On Children1778 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAbstract Down syndrome is an inherited disorder caused when abnormal cell division occurs the outcome is an extra genetic material from chromosome 21. Having an extra chromosome affects the physical appearance of an individual and also causes health issues and delayed development. With Down syndrome being the most common genetic chromosomal disorder and cause of learning disabilities in children, we like to see how the student would interact in a school setting. How would a student with Down syndromeRead MoreImproving The Standard And Effectiveness Of Education5219 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pageseffectiveness of education in impoverished neighborhoods. A lot of studies have aimed to ascertain the benefits that various safety network programs have for at-risk children living in poverty stricken areas of the country. This paper seeks to highlight the host of elements that have a positive bearing on the academic outcome of children belonging to the poverty stricken counties in the state of Ohio. The res earch will employ a qualitative method design and involve using semi-structured interviews,Read MoreSelf And : Self Efficacy2199 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesperceive situations and how we behave in response to different situations, self-efficacy plays an essential part in this self-system. According to Bandura, there are four major sources of self-efficacy. The first being Mastery Experiences, The most effective way of developing a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences, (McMahan, 310-311). Bandura explained. Performing a task successfully strengthens our sense of self-efficacy. However, failing to effectively deal with a task or challengeRead MoreInflence of Parental Monitoring on Adolescent Decision Making9466 Words Ã |Ã 38 PagesABSTRACT Adolescents, who are neither children nor adults, stand with a foot in each world (childhood and adulthood). Their intellectual and emotional development is greater than that of young children, yet they are not fully mature. By age 14, their basic cognitive skills are substantially similar to what they will be in adulthood, although they lack the experience of adults. They are likely to have a well-developed set of preferences and a set of moral values. Risk taking is a natural partRead MoreEssay on Principal Education2752 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesAn exploration for increasing student learning and accountability has led educators to include students in the conference process. A way of including students in their academic performance and allowing them an opportunity to directly assess their classroom work has brought about a change from traditional parent-teacher conferences to student-led conferences (Borba and Olvera, 2001). As Borba and Olvera (2001) stated, Ã¢â¬Å"student-led conferences motivate students to think about and act on personal initiativesRead MoreFactors Affecting the Academic Achievement of Freshmen College Students in Science at Universidad de Manila5828 Words Ã |Ã 24 PagesAchievement of students in schools has been the concern of school authorities. Several solutions have been offered in order to improve the quality of instruction. Some of these prove to be effective for some time, but later new innovations are introduced thus sometimes affect the teaching-learning situations in the classrooms. Science subjects are important because this field have greatly benefited mankind in its efforts to improve the quality of life. In view of this, college education playsRead MoreFactors That Affect the Academic Performance of the Student Using Computer11401 Words Ã |Ã 46 Pagespersuasively that the single most dominant factor affecting student academic gain is teacher effect.1Ã However, little statistical research is available for evaluating which type of training and teaching degree has the best effect on student achievement. As the demand for higher academic achievement and accountability in public education grows, it is important to determine whether teachers who hold advanced degrees in education as a general field are more effective than those who have degrees inRead MoreDefinition of Adolescent Development14194 Words Ã |Ã 57 PagesDefinition of Adolescent development: The development of children ages 12 through 19 years old is expected to include predictable physical and mental milestones. Introduction Derived from the Latin verb adolescere (to grow into maturity), adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescent is a distinct and dynamic phase of development in the life of an individual. It is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is characterized by spurts of physical, mentalRead MoreDefinition of Adolescent Development14200 Words Ã |Ã 57 PagesDefinition of Adolescent development: The development of children ages 12 through 19 years old is expected to include predictable physical and mental milestones. Introduction Derived from the Latin verb adolescere (to grow into maturity), adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescent is a distinct and dynamic phase of development in the life of an individual. It is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is characterized by spurts of physical Evaluating the Most Effective Parenting Styles with... Evaluating the Most Effective Parenting Styles with Children: Positive Outcomes in the Home and Classroom. A parent is not only the loving mother who holds you close to her for nine months and then many years, or the father who plays baseball with you and intimidates his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s dates. It is someone who is there for you from the start, guiding you to the right path of knowledge and teaching you how to stay on the right path independently. A parent does not need to have any biological associations to the child in order to be a parent to them. A parent has certain characteristics who needs to be met to be justly named a parent. For many years, psychologists have defined ways to correctly support a child into adulthood for parents allÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For example, the family would normally be eating at the dinner table and discussing how they felt about the events of their day. This could be a positive psychological effect on the child with preventing high levels of anxiety, or depression because of talking everything out with the family, and not repressing anything ne gative. The fact that the parent has high responsiveness towards the child ensures that the parent and child can communicate and reason together for an agreement which helps the child develop those social competency skills the child would essentially need in the future. The Authoritative parents are assertive in making sure the child is achieving the tasks he or she needs to complete and obeying assigned rules. However, the parents are not intrusive of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy and needs. In addition, the parents have more acceptance of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality. (Ishak, Low Lau, 2011) In contrast, Authoritarian Parenting has a high level of demandingness but low levels of responsiveness. The Authoritarian parent is assertive but also very intrusive and very rigid on maintaining the authority figure in the household and not worrying about being the childÃ¢â¬â¢s friend. The parent would have very high expectations of good behavior and well manners in the household and good grades in the classroom. Moreover, the parent a routine obedience with the rules, regardless whether the child understands why one